It’s not that starting Pinoy Entrepreneurs would be keen on getting to know the intricacies of shares of stocks or securities, much more The Securities Regulation Code (Republic Act No. 8799). Still, at the very least, a little background on the matter would sound impressive during business meetings. So let’s have a primer on the subject matter of securities.
Broader than shares of stocks
Securities are shares, participation or interests in a corporation or in a commercial enterprise or profit-making venture and evidenced by a certificate, contract, instruments, whether written or electronic in character. In other words, shares of stocks in a corporation are considered securities, but not all securities are shares of stocks. Securities include: (a) Shares of stocks, bonds, debentures, notes evidences of indebtedness, asset-backed securities; (b) Investment contracts, certificates of interest or participation in a profit sharing agreement, certifies of deposit for a future subscription; (c) Fractional undivided interests in oil, gas or other mineral rights; (d) Derivatives like option and warrants; (e) Certificates of assignments, certificates of participation, trust certificates, voting trust certificates or similar instruments; (f) Proprietary or nonproprietary membership certificates in corporations; and (g) Other instruments as may in the future be determined by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Registration of securities
As a rule, securities must be registered with the SEC before they can be sold or offered for sale or distribution within the Philippines. Considering that shares of stocks are considered as securities, does that mean thar incorporators or shareholders must separately register those shares? Not necessarily. There are exempt securities and exempt transactions.
The requirement of registration is not, as a general rule, apply to any of the following classes of securities:
(a) Any security issued or guaranteed by the Government of the Philippines, or by any political subdivision or agency thereof, or by any person controlled or supervised by, and acting as an instrumentality of said Government.
(b) Any security issued or guaranteed by the government of any country with which the Philippines maintains diplomatic relations, or by any state, province or political subdivision thereof on the basis of reciprocity: Provided, That the Commission may require compliance with the form and content for disclosures the Commission may prescribe.
(c) Certificates issued by a receiver or by a trustee in bankruptcy duly approved by the proper adjudicatory body.
(d) Any security or its derivatives the sale or transfer of which, by law, is under the supervision and regulation of the Office of the Insurance Commission, Housing and Land Use Rule Regulatory Board, or the Bureau of Internal Revenue.
(e) Any security issued by a bank except its own shares of stock.
The SEC may add to the foregoing any class of securities if it finds that the enforcement of The Securities Regulation Code with respect to such securities is necessary in the public interest and for the protection of investors.
The requirement of registration is not apply to the sale of any security in any of the following transactions:
(a) At any judicial sale, or sale by an executor, administrator, guardian or receiver or trustee in insolvency or bankruptcy.
(b) By or for the account of a pledge holder, or mortgagee or any of a pledge lien holder selling of offering for sale or delivery in the ordinary course of business and not for the purpose of avoiding the provision of this Code, to liquidate a bonafide debt, a security pledged in good faith as security for such debt.
(c) An isolated transaction in which any security is sold, offered for sale, subscription or delivery by the owner therefore, or by his representative for the owner’s account, such sale or offer for sale or offer for sale, subscription or delivery not being made in the course of repeated and successive transaction of a like character by such owner, or on his account by such representative and such owner or representative not being the underwriter of such security.
(d) The distribution by a corporation actively engaged in the business authorized by its articles of incorporation, of securities to its stockholders or other security holders as a stock dividend or other distribution out of surplus.
(e) The sale of capital stock of a corporation to its own stockholders exclusively, where no commission or other remuneration is paid or given directly or indirectly in connection with the sale of such capital stock.
(f) The issuance of bonds or notes secured by mortgage upon real estate or tangible personal property, when the entire mortgage together with all the bonds or notes secured thereby are sold to a single purchaser at a single sale.
(g) The issue and delivery of any security in exchange for any other security of the same issuer pursuant to a right of conversion entitling the holder of the security surrendered in exchange to make such conversion: Provided, That the security so surrendered has been registered under this Code or was, when sold, exempt from the provision of this Code, and that the security issued and delivered in exchange, if sold at the conversion price, would at the time of such conversion fall within the class of securities entitled to registration under this Code. Upon such conversion the par value of the security surrendered in such exchange shall be deemed the price at which the securities issued and delivered in such exchange are sold.
(h) Broker’s transaction, executed upon customer’s orders, on any registered Exchange or other trading market.
(i) Subscriptions for shares of the capitals stocks of a corporation prior to the incorporation thereof or in pursuance of an increase in its authorized capital stocks under the Corporation Code, when no expense is incurred, or no commission, compensation or remuneration is paid or given in connection with the sale or disposition of such securities, and only when the purpose for soliciting, giving or taking of such subscription is to comply with the requirements of such law as to the percentage of the capital stock of a corporation which should be subscribed before it can be registered and duly incorporated, or its authorized, capital increase.
(j) The exchange of securities by the issuer with the existing security holders exclusively, where no commission or other remuneration is paid or given directly or indirectly for soliciting such exchange.
(k) The sale of securities by an issuer to fewer than twenty (20) persons in the Philippines during any twelve-month period.
(l) The sale of securities to any number of the following qualified buyers: (i) Bank; (ii) Registered investment house; (iii) Insurance company; (iv) Pension fund or retirement plan maintained by the Government of the Philippines or any political subdivision thereof or manage by a bank or other persons authorized by the Bangko Sentral to engage in trust functions; (v) Investment company or; (vi) Such other person as the Commission may rule by determine as qualified buyers, on the basis of such factors as financial sophistication, net worth, knowledge, and experience in financial and business matters, or amount of assets under management.
SEC may exempt other transactions, if it finds that the requirements of registration under The Securities Regulation Code is not necessary in the public interest or for the protection of the investors such as by the reason of the small amount involved or the limited character of the public offering.